All about skin

Leather - a natural product, it is created by nature and therefore has a unique and extraordinary features. This is the first material that people have learned to use for upholstery. Furniture in good skin is very durable and eventually becomes more perfect, getting a touch of noble patina. So buying a leather sofa or chair - it is a good investment in your home culture. Leather furniture is not just a piece of furniture. She "lives" with their owners.
Variation in prices of furniture in different skins is very high. After all, the quality and value of this material is made up of many components. Skin types are distinguished by the raw materials from which they are produced, the configuration (the differences in the processing chain), the method and the nature of finishes, thickness, area, and other parameters.
Characteristics of the types of skins belonging to different groups:
Leather with fully adjusted person. The skins are deep gouging of the top layer in order to reduce to a minimum lifetime defects. They are very carefully handled: Gouging removed all visible defects in the surface layer. After painting is done inking medium-deep embossing. Then the skin is covered with a thin layer of polyurethane varnish, resistant to mechanical shocks, dirt and moisture. As a result of this treatment, the skin takes on a new - fully adjusted "person." Thus, a beautiful skin with virtually flawless surface.
Despite all the changes that occur in the processing of skins, they preserve the dignity of natural materials - color, texture, smell, and resistance to mechanical stress. These skin have very high wet abrasion test - more than 300 times. All steps to improve the appearance and color of water is only trains. Therefore, chemical cleaners to clean are not allowed.
Leather partially corrected natural "person." Leather partially corrected the "face" (semi-aniline leather) are delicate gouging at which cut off all protruding skin defects (most commonly used skin mature cows). The upper layer of the dermis, called the "least" virtually unaffected. Causes more shallow Fine stamping enables keep natural skin patterns with characteristic wrinkles and pores, while muffling some defects. These types of coloring is dull semi-aniline leather dyes. After dyeing operation is optional scroll hides in special drums with steam. As a result, the skin gets extra softness and flexibility. Semi-aniline leather possess hygroscopicity and a high potential for recovery of tension (relaxation).
Aniline leather with a natural "face". Produced from the best raw materials with the skin so-called "natural person". They are subjected to the minimum ground and are not subject to stamping, thus preserving the unique natural pattern of the surface on which you can see the "live" cell structure of the upper layer of the dermis (Glues). Therefore, the surface of the skin with a natural "face" can be viewed veins, scars, scratches, insect bites effects, birth marks and other signs of animal life. Traces of these only emphasize the natural material and leather furniture give a special charm and personality. By aniline skins is traditionally popular artificially aged upholstery. This skin under tension changes color to a lighter shade, followed by reduction - this is called the effect of aging, which is produced by impregnating natural wax formulations. This custom upholstery furniture gives a special dignity and makes it truly unique.
All of the skin with a natural "face" painted only natural aniline dyes, have a special strength, elasticity, hygroscopicity - they are "warm", do not break the heat exchange between the individual and the environment ("breathe"), which creates a special feeling of comfort. They want to touch and feel the pleasant odor. This skin can absorb moisture, so the spot acquired in the operation, may eventually disappear. Relaxation aniline leather is very high.
Natural dressed leather always has a pleasant characteristic smell - aroma of prestige that with what can not be confused. Is unique and the structure of the skin. Each skin has folds or wrinkles on the surface, natural trails, animals received during his lifetime. They are a reminder that the leather is a natural product, and suggests that any leather sofa in some way unique. After all, when working with this material, furniture manufacturers have to use an individual approach to each skin. Therefore it is impossible to produce quality leather furniture, just somewhere after procuring technology. Because of their specific properties and specific features leather furniture maker requires a lot of experience. Need a lot of work to map and skillfully distribute all features of the "face" on the parts cut.
The natural features of leather, allowed on the surface of leather furniture. Based on the type, you can select some of the most common characteristics of the skin, which are European standards is not a "marriage" and are used in the manufacture of furniture.
1. Lizuha - small parallel matte and shiny stripes darker in some areas face skin. This feature of the skin - an essential natural element "person" in the absence of damage to the surface layer and the membrane (back surface of the skin). Individual lizuha permitted on personal details in a chaotic arrangement. If it is plentiful - allowed on symmetrical parts. Lizuha found only in the skins with natural unpolished "face".
2. Stringy - natural markings in the form of traces ramiform drawing blood vessels. Can be used on non-working surfaces (armrests, backrest and rear side-bar).
3. Namine - creases or wrinkles on the skin without peeling, making it to look softer and older. Use balanced by CAWG and working surfaces (back cushion, seat cushion, pillow armrests) and the non-working surfaces.
4. Front embossed grooves - healed external and internal scars, traces of horns and other solid objects, animals received during his lifetime. This feature does not affect the skin color and is valid for pure undisturbed layer of hide.
5. Knutoviny - on the front surface of the skin appear as bands of darker color. Without violating Glues knutoviny can be used on non-working surfaces.
6. Zemin - wrinkles on the skin, are used only for non-working surfaces.
7. Birthmarks - darker spots with different diameters on facial skin layer. Used on the side-bar and work surfaces.
8. Sore - healed from illness intralesional skin without breaking Glues. Not pronounced sore used on work surfaces and side-bar, pronounced - non-working surfaces.
9. Ospina - spots, rashes, formless least. Used on non-working surfaces.
10. Drip - strip the dye on the front surface: a) a pronounced drip used in side-bar and work surfaces, and b) a pronounced bruise used on non-working surfaces.
11. Heterogeneous stamping - natural feature of the front surface of the skin. Use balanced on personal details.
Since defects protruding top layer leather sostragivayutsya and cover embossed, most of these features on these skins is seen only in the form of subtle facial relief grooves, painted and do not violate mereyu. Skin created by nature, and can not make two identical leather sofa. Therefore, working with leather furniture requires production standards and qualifications manufacturer, and the possession of a "living" thing raises the prestige of its owner.

General tips for skin care
Leather is a hygroscopic capillary-porous material absorbs moisture, and just as easily give it away. Mass fraction of moisture in the skin should be at least 10-16%, this level is easily maintained, if the relative humidity of the room is 65-70%. Thus, it is necessary to maintain the normal relative humidity of the room in which the furniture. At lower humidity skin begins to give the mass fraction of moisture, leading to premature skin dryness and brittleness, and, as a consequence, the shattering of the dye. Fatty substances, which give elasticity over time dry. Loss of elasticity leads to cracking of the surface layer. Therefore, the furniture of leather need not often, two, or even once a year, lubricate (fatten). We recommend using a sponge soaked in grease stearin. To prevent fading or burning furniture dye preferably not exposed to direct sunlight, intense light bulbs.
Remember! Any processing (cleaning) should be pre-tested on a single sample or hide upholstery. Be sure to wait until the test sample is dry.
Warning: any corrosive substances to the skin destroying the upper protective layer and can cause discoloration, loss of elastic qualities, peeling painted skin and lead to other faulty results.
Type of pollution
Aniline leather
Semi-aniline leather
Stains and liquids. Immediately remove excess fluid clean, soft cloth. Let the remaining moisture to dry naturally. Before you can use for other purposes, wait until the skin is completely dry. Never use.
Immediately blot the excess moisture with a soft cloth or sponge. If necessary, you can gently rub the stain with a soft, damp cloth or sponge soaked in warm soapy water. Then wipe with a dry woolen cloth. Before you can use for other purposes, wait until the skin is completely dry.
Animal and vegetable fats. Eliminate excess animal or vegetable fat with a clean dry cloth. Soon stain soaks into the skin. Do not use water or try to wash these stains. Eliminate stains with a clean cloth.
Do not use
▫ aggressive substances (paint thinners, acids, alkalis);
▫ solvents (turpentine, furniture polish, varnish, abrasive cleaners and other chemical solutions).
▫ tap water (do not try to clean stains);
▫ alkaline soap, cleaning solvents, furniture lak0, varnish;
▫ abrasive cleaners, detergents, ammonia water and other chemical solutions;
▫ strongly not recommended to rub the upholstery.
As a rule, lack of care less harmful to the skin, rather than redundant. Aniline leather quite thoroughly cleaned once a year. First, wipe the furniture with a damp chamois not alkaline soap dissolved in warm distilled water. Avoid very wet skin and do not use normal tap water since it often contains lime and can leave stains or white circles. Use a clean piece of suede, which has not been used before. Use an old piece of chamois is undesirable because it may contain residues of methyl alcohol, sand and dust that can damage the skin. Then wipe the furniture with the use of boiled water to remove soap residue. When the skin is completely dry, gently wipe with a soft cloth coated with a few drops of castor oil. Use no more than 6-8 drops per square meter of skin. Instead of the solution alkaline soap, you can also use any past tests cleaner skin, following the instructions.
Never spray a substance that comes in a spray with a neutral gas propellant directly to the skin. Apply foam to damp sponge and spread it over the area to be cleaned. Then you can treat the surface means, giving the skin moisture and soil release properties. One treatment of six months provides good protection. Before use, read the instructions on the spray, and follow them.